These tables give weights per bushel, weights of grain by volume, moisture conversion and planting rates.

**Table 1. Weights per bushel.**

Crop | Weight per bushel (lbs.) |
---|---|

Alfalfa | 60 |

Barley | 48 |

Clover, Alsike | 60 |

Clover, Crimson | 60 |

Clover, Ladino | 60 |

Clover, White | 60 |

Clover, Red | 60 |

Clover Sweet | 60 |

Corn, shelled | 56 |

Corn, ear | 70 |

Cotton | 32 |

Cowpeas | 60 |

Flax | 60 |

Grass, Brome (smooth) | 14 |

Grass, Blue | 14 |

Grass, Fescue (tall) | 14 |

Grass, Orchard | 14 |

Grass, Redtop | 14 |

Grass, Timothy | 45 |

Lespedeza | 40-50 |

Millet | 50 |

Oats | 32 |

Rape | 60 |

Rye | 56 |

Sorghum, forage | 50 |

Sorghum, grain | 56 |

Soybeans | 60 |

Sudan grass | 28 |

Sunflower (oil type) | 24-32 |

Trefoil, Birdsfoot | 60 |

Vetch | 60 |

Wheat | 60 |

**Table 2. Calculating approximate weight of grain by volume**

Standard bushel weight (lbs.) | Pounds/cubic feet |
---|---|

60 | 48.18 |

56 | 44.97 |

50 | 40.15 |

48 | 38.54 |

45 | 36.14 |

28 | 22.48 |

14 | 11.24 |

70 (ear corn) | 28.00^{1} |

^{1} Varies greatly with ear size and moisture content. |

Width in feet multiplied by length in feet multiplied by depth of grain in feet equals cubic feet in square or rectangular enclosures.

Example.

10 ft. width x 14 ft. length x 9 ft. grain depth = 1,260 cu. ft.

In circular bins, the formula is: pi (3.14) multiplied by the radius squared, multiplied by the depth of grain = cubic feet.

Multiply cubic feet of volume by the appropriate figure from Table 2 under Pounds/Cubic Feet.

If actual bushel weight (test weight) is available, multiply actual bushel weight by 0.803. This calculation will give a more accurate figure for lbs./cu. ft. than you can get from the table.

**Table 3. Moisture conversion for ear and shelled corn.**

Percent moisture in grain | Harvest weight (lbs.) of ear corn to yield 56 shelled corn at 15.5% moisture^{1} | Shelled corn (lbs.) Equivalent to 56 lbs. shelled corn at 15.5% moisture |
---|---|---|

10 | 63.49 | 52.56 |

10.5 | 63.86 | 52.87 |

11 | 64.25 | 53.16 |

11.5 | 54.65 | 53.46 |

12 | 65.06 | 53.77 |

12.5 | 65.60 | 54.08 |

13 | 65.95 | 54.39 |

13.5 | 66.42 | 54.70 |

14 | 66.89 | 55.02 |

14.5 | 67.39 | 55.34 |

15 | 67.89 | 55.67 |

15.5 | 68.40 | 56.00 |

16 | 68.94 | 56.33 |

16.5 | 69.51 | 56.67 |

17 | 70.09 | 57.01 |

17.5 | 70.69 | 57.35 |

18 | 71.31 | 57.70 |

18.5 | 71.95 | 58.06 |

19 | 72.60 | 58.41 |

19.5 | 73.27 | 58.78 |

Percent moisture in grain | Harvest weight (lbs.) of ear corn to yield 56 shelled corn at 15.5% moisture^{1} | Shelled corn (lbs.) Equivalent to 56 lbs. shelled corn at 15.5% moisture |

20 | 73.96 | 59.15 |

20.5 | 74.60 | 59.52 |

21 | 75.36 | 59.89 |

21.5 | 76.07 | 60.28 |

22 | 76.79 | 60.66 |

22.5 | 77.53 | 61.05 |

23 | 78.25 | 61.45 |

23.5 | 79.01 | 61.85 |

24 | 79.76 | 62.26 |

24.5 | 80.50 | 62.67 |

25 | 81.25 | 63.09 |

25.5 | 82.03 | 63.51 |

26 | 82.82 | 63.94 |

26.5 | 83.50 | 64.38 |

27 | 84.19 | 64.82 |

27.5 | 84.90 | 65.26 |

28 | 85.62 | 65.72 |

28.5 | 86.32 | 66.18 |

29 | 87.04 | 66.64 |

29.5 | 87.76 | 67.12 |

Percent moisture in grain | Harvest weight (lbs.) of ear corn to yield 56 shelled corn at 15.5% moisture^{1} | Shelled corn (lbs.) Equivalent to 56 lbs. shelled corn at 15.5% moisture |

30 | 88.50 | 67.60 |

30.5 | 89.22 | 68.08 |

31 | 89.94 | 68.57 |

31.5 | 90.67 | 69.08 |

32 | 91.43 | 69.58 |

32.5 | 92.13 | 70.10 |

33 | 92.85 | 70.62 |

33.5 | 93.55 | 71.15 |

34 | 94.28 | 71.69 |

34.5 | 94.98 | 72.24 |

35 | 95.71 | 72.80 |

^{1}Ear corn values supplied by Dr. Marcus Zuber, University of Missouri Agronomy Department. Ear corn values apply with greatest accuracy at harvest because differences in cob and grain moisture will change in storage. Shelled corn figures apply at any time. |

Divide total grain weight by appropriate standard bushel weight.

Obtaining number of hundredweights (cwts.) of grain

Divide total grain weight by 100.

**Table 4. Moisture conversion for soybeans.**

Percent moisture in grain | Soybeans (lbs. equivalent to 60 lbs.of Soybeans at 13.0% Moisture |
---|---|

10 | 58.00 |

11 | 58.65 |

12 | 59.32 |

13 | 60.00 |

14 | 60.70 |

15 | 61.41 |

16 | 62.14 |

17 | 62.89 |

18 | 63.66 |

19 | 64.64 |

20 | 65.25 |

21 | 66.08 |

22 | 66.92 |

23 | 67.79 |

24 | 68.68 |

25 | 69.60 |

26 | 70.54 |

27 | 71.51 |

28 | 72.50 |

29 | 73.52 |

30 | 74.57 |

**Table 5. Moisture conversion for wheat.**

Percent moisture in grain | Wheat (lbs.) equivalent to 60 lbs. of wheat at 13.5% moisture |
---|---|

10 | 57.67 |

11 | 58.65 |

12 | 59.32 |

13 | 59.66 |

13.5 | 60.00 |

14 | 60.35 |

15 | 61.06 |

16 | 61.79 |

17 | 62.53 |

18 | 63.29 |

19 | 64.07 |

20 | 64.88 |

21 | 65.70 |

22 | 66.54 |

23 | 67.40 |

24 | 68.29 |

25 | 69.20 |

26 | 70.14 |

27 | 71.10 |

28 | 72.08 |

29 | 73.10 |

30 | 74.14 |

**Table 6. Moisture conversion for grain sorghum.**

Percent moisture in grain | Grain sorghum (lbs.) equivalent to 56 lbs. of grain sorghum at 13% moisture |
---|---|

10 | 54.13 |

11 | 54.74 |

12 | 55.36 |

13 | 56.00 |

14 | 56.65 |

15 | 57.32 |

16 | 58.00 |

17 | 58.70 |

18 | 59.41 |

19 | 60.15 |

20 | 60.90 |

21 | 61.67 |

22 | 62.46 |

23 | 63.27 |

24 | 64.11 |

25 | 64.96 |

26 | 65.83 |

27 | 66.74 |

28 | 67.67 |

29 | 68.62 |

30 | 69.60 |

These conversion tables cover the most widely grown crops and the most common moisture contents. When you need other conversions, the calculations are relatively simple.

Use **percent dry matter** in making conversions because the problem is to obtain the same weight of dry matter as is found in a standard bushel. For example, a standard bushel of wheat contains 60 pounds at 13.5 percent moisture. Thus, 86.5 percent dry matter (100-13.5) x 60 lbs. = 51.9 lbs of dry matter.

**Example. **How many pounds of 20.5 percent moisture wheat is equivalent to a standard bushel?

13.5% Standard Moisture Content = 100 - 13.5 = 86.5% Dry Matter

20.5% Moisture Content = 100 - 20.5 = 79.5% Dry Matter

86.5 ÷ 79.5 = 108.8%

(108.8 x Standard Bu. Wt. (60 for Wheat)) ÷ 100 = 65.28 lbs. equivalent to a standard bushel

To check your answer:

65.28 x 79.5% dry matter = 51.9 lbs. of dry matter

**Table 7. Common measures and approximate metric equivalents.**

1 liquid teaspoon | = 5 milliliters (ml.) |

3 liquid teaspoons | = 1 liquid tablespoon = 15 ml. |

2 liquid tablespoons | = 1 liquid ounce = 30 ml. |

8 liquid ounces | = 1 liquid cup = 0.24 liter (l.) |

2 liquid cups | = 1 liquid pint = 0.47 l. |

2 liquid pints | = 1 liquid quart = 0.9463 l. |

4 liquid quarts | = 1 liquid gallon (U.S.) = 3.7854 l. |

**Table 8. Conversion factors for metric and English units.**

Length |

1 mile = 1.609 kilometers; 1 kilometer = 0.621 miles |

1 yard = 0.914 meters; 1 meter = 1.094 yards |

1 inch = 2.54 centimeters; 1 centimeter = 0.394 inches |

Area |

1 square mile = 2.59 square kilometers; 1 square kilometer = 0.386 square miles |

1 acre = 0.00405 square kilometers; 1 square kilometer = 247.1 acres |

1 acre = 0.405 hectares; 1 hectare = 2.471 acres |

Volume |

1 acre-inch = 102.8 cubic meters; 1 cubic meter = 0.00973 acre-inches |

1 quart = 0.946 liters; 1 liter = 1.057 quarts |

1 bushel = 0.352 hectoliters; 1 hectoliter = 2.838 bushels |

Weight |

1 pound = 0.454 kilograms; 1 kilogram = 2.205 pounds |

1 pound = 0.00454 quintals; 1 quintal = 220.5 pounds |

1 ton = 0.9072 metric tons; 1 metric ton = 1.102 tons |

Yield or rate |

1 pound/acre = 1.121 kilograms/hectare; 1 kilogram/hectare = 0.892 pounds/acre |

1 ton/acre = 2.242 tons/hectare; 1 ton/hectare = 0.446 tons/acre |

1 bushel/acre = 1.121 quintals/hectare; 1 quintal/hectare = 0.892 bushels/acre |

1 bushel/acre (60#) = 0.6726 quintals/hectare; 1 quintal/hectare = 1.487 bushels/acre (60#) |

1 bushel/acre (56#) = 0.6278 quintals/hectare; 1 quintal/hectare = 1.597 bushels/acre (56#) |

Temperature |

To convert Fahrenheit (F) to Celsius (C): 0.555 x (F - 32); to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit: 1.8 x (C + 32) |

**Table 9. Mixing small quantities of liquid spray. The first column represents concentration of active ingredient per gallon; the second column provides corresponding amount to mix for 1,000 square feet to get 1 pound/acre of active ingredient.**

Concentration of Active Ingredient per Gallon | Amount to Mix for 1000 sq. ft. to get 1lb./acre of Active Ingredient |
---|---|

1 lb. | 7 tablespoons or 103 ml. |

2 lbs. | 3.5 tablespoons or 51.5 ml. |

3 lbs. | 2.3 tablespoons or 34.3 ml. |

4 lbs | 1.7 tablespoons or 25.8 ml. |

This table may be useful in checking actual planting rate when planting a crop. It can also be used in obtaining stand counts.

Determine average spacing in inches between seeds (or plants) in the row. Then divide the appropriate figure in the right hand column by this figure to determine planting rate (or stand).

**Example.** Grain sorghum planted in 30-inch rows is found to average 2.5 inches between seeds.

209,088 ÷ 2.5 = 83,635 seeds being planted per acre.

Or the grain sorghum stand averages 1 plant per 3.5 inches of row. Then 209,088 ÷ 3.5 = 59,379 plants per acre.

You can use this method without the table as long as you remember that there are 43,560 square feet per acre and that 144 square inches = 1 square foot.

43,560 x 144 = 6,272,630 square inches per acre.Divide 6,272,640 by inches of row width to obtain inches of row per acre (6,272,640 ÷ 30 = 209,088).

Row spacing (inches) | Inches of row per acre |
---|---|

40 | 155,682 |

38 | 165,069 |

36 | 174,240 |

30 | 209,088 |

28 | 224,023 |

24 | 261,360 |

20 | 313,632 |

18 | 348,480 |

15 | 418,176 |

14 | 448,046 |

12 | 522,720 |

10 | 627,264 |

8 | 784,080 |

7 | 896,091 |

William J. Murphy

Department of Agronomy, University of Missouri-Columbia

Copyright 1999 University of Missouri. Published by University Extension, University of Missouri-Columbia. Please use our feedback form for questions or comments about this or any other publication contained on the Explore site.

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